this looks excellent, quy! a great move to make - we'll hope it gets
on 1/20/03 11:01 PM, Quy Ton at [log in to unmask] wrote:
> Hey AMSA and UAEM folks,
> I guess the AMSA resolution I submitted regarding Univeristies Allied for
> Essential Medicine's (UEAM) mission was not attached to the last email.
> It's pasted below along with a link to its main reference. Since I presume
> many of you don't know what's up with AMSA's resolution process (I didn't
> really know what a resolution was up until the night they were due), I've
> pasted some of the relevant info about it after the resolution. If you take
> a moment to explore AMSA's great website, you'll see that AMSA has a pretty
> remarkable setup and it's PPP and Resolution process, similar to the US
> Congress, is how AMSA gets things done. Resolutions are reviewed by each
> chapter in February and then discussed and voted on when the House of
> Delegates meet at the National Convention in March. I believe Caleb also
> wrote a resolution about incorporating non-violence as one of AMSA's major
> focus areas. We'll talk more about the national conference and our roles in
> reviewing and voting on this year's resolutions at the meeting on Thursday
> during lunch. It's a good way to learn how real policies are created,
> passed and implemented.
> I have a couple quick UAEM and Physican for Human Rights-related
> announcements to make early in the meeting as I have to leave by one to make
> a chiropractic appointment. See you all then.
> ----- Original Message -----
> From: "A. Sitze" <[log in to unmask]>
> To: <[log in to unmask]>
> Sent: Monday, January 20, 2003 9:57 PM
> Subject: AMSA Resolution: Universities, IP & Access to Essential Meds
> Nice job -- you rock!
> I sent the resolution to the tri-university list, so that the people from
> Yale and Emory can look at it.
> What happens now? (I.e. what's the time-line & procedure?)
> Two days ago, Quy Ton submitted the following resolution to the appropriate
> AMSA authorities:
> American Medical Student Association
> House of Delegates 2003
> INTRODUCED BY: Quy Ton
> SCHOOL: University of Minnesota Medical School, Twin Cities
> SUBJECT: University Research, Intellectual Property and Access to
> Essential Medicines in Resource-Poor Settings
> TYPE: Principles
> It is beyond dispute that we are in the midst of a global health crisis:
> Millions of people around the world, the majority of them living in
> developing countries, are dying because they lack access to life-saving
> medications for diseases like AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. Life-saving
> antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS is available, but unaffordable prices
> too often prevent safe and effective treatments from reaching the
> populations that need them. Clearly, the current patenting and licensing
> system, exacerbated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) Trade-Related
> Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS) Agreement, is not meeting the
> needs of the majority of the world¹s population because the world drug
> market is concentrated in the North.
> Universities have played early and crucial roles in developing many
> HIV-related medicines, but still rely upon patents and licenses to
> private-sector pharmaceutical companies to develop and market final
> products. Because universities are ³upstream², they often are in position
> to have early leverage over any drug that is developed and marketed. With
> intellectual property (IP) rights now recognized as key levers in
> determining prices, profits and access, universities face difficult
> questions about how best to manage their IP policies to further their
> mission of serving the public good. As yet, however, there are no
> best-practices models that define specific IP management strategies
> universities can adopt to promote access to medicines in developing
> Students, faculty and researchers can greatly influence university
> intellectual property practices and thus play an important role in
> increasing access to essential medicines worldwide. For example, students
> and faculty were influential in convincing Yale University and
> Bristol-Meyers Squibb to announce that they would allow generic production
> of stavudine (d4T, a widely-used antiretroviral drug patented by Yale and
> licensed to Bristol-Meyers Squibb) and sharply reduce prices in developing
> countries. The result was a rapid, thirty-fold price reduction of d4T in
> South Africa and a subsequent agreement signed with a generic company to
> make generic d4T in South Africa. This important change was made at Yale
> without any negative consequences to the University financial or
> THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the PRINCIPLES REGARDING PHARMACEUTICALS AND
> MEDICAL DEVICES,
> BE AMENDED to include:
> 7. Regarding University research, intellectual property and access to
> essential medicines in resource-poor settings:
> AMSA RECOGNIZES that Universities, as intellectual property holders, play
> a crucial role in the development of new medicines and medical technologies.
> How they patent and license these technologies can help determine whether
> individuals in developing countries have access to the end products of
> university research.
> AMSA URGES Universities to utilize the following Principles, suggested by
> the institutional ethos of universities, when making patenting and
> licensing decisions that have potential impacts on access to essential
> medicines and medical technologies worldwide:
> + University research is intended to advance the common public good, a
> primary element of which is the advancement of health.
> + Global public health concerns need to be an important part of patenting
> and licensing decisions.
> + The success of patenting and licensing programs should be measured
> according to their impact upon public health.
> + University intellectual property policies should be implemented in a
> manner supportive of developing countries¹ right to protect public health
> and, in particular, to promote access to medicines for all.
> + Technology transfer to develop capacity in developing countries is an
> important part of universities¹ mandate to advance knowledge and the social
> AMSA URGES Universities to consider different strategies to implement these
> Principles, including not patenting or allowing their licensees to patent
> in developing countries, and issuing non-exclusive licenses for developing
> country markets.
> AMSA RECOGNIZES that changes in University practices, with regards to
> intellectual property, will require collective action and leadership
> amongst Universities world-wide. Henceforth, AMSA URGES Universities to
> act together to establish norms and implement strategies and best practices
> to promote access to essential medicines in developing countries.
> The Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS. Workshop Report:
> Access to Essential Medicines and University Research: Building Best
> Practices. Yale University, September 25, 2002.
> Also available online at:
> GENERAL INFORMATION
> When AMSA members want to change one of AMSA¹s policies, they write a
> resolution, AMSA¹s equivalent to a congressional bill. A resolution is a
> written request to the House of Delegates (HOD) that asks AMSA¹s membership,
> through the HOD, to consider changing one of its policies. Every member of
> AMSA has the right to write and submit resolutions to the HOD. This right is
> a fundamental way in which the members of AMSA express their ownership of
> the association. Every member¹s voice is heard, and anyone can change AMSA.
> Resolutions are of vital importance to AMSA because they form the policies
> in the Preamble, Purposes and Principles (PPP), the official policy document
> which guides AMSA. The board of trustees uses the resolutions passed in the
> HOD from the previous year as a compass for the action they must take in the
> following year. AMSA¹s national president and legislative affairs director
> use the PPP to prepare and present testimony, lobby Congress or advise other
> medical groups about the opinions of medical students. Position papers and
> policy summaries are based on the PPP. AMSA chapters often share the PPP
> with their deans, medical schools and other local organizations. Your
> resolutions will play a major role in directing AMSA for years to come.
> Following are some guidelines for writing a resolution.
> 1. A resolution proposes a specific change in the PPP
> A resolution is a written request to the HOD asking AMSA¹s membership to
> consider changing one of the policies in our Preamble, Purposes and
> Principles. If the PPP already contains a section that addresses the topic
> in question, the resolution needs to spell out exactly how the section
> should be changed. If there is nothing in the PPP about the topic, a
> resolution may propose that AMSA add a new section to the PPP. Before
> writing a resolution, members should always read through the PPP to see if
> any sections pertain to the topic of their resolution.
> 2. The different types of resolutions
> There are three different types of resolutions, one for each of the three
> PPP sections: ³Constitution and Bylaws;² ³Structure, Function and Internal
> Policies (³SFIP²);² and ³Preamble, Purposes and Principles.² If members want
> to change the internal policies governing the way AMSA runs, they may write
> a resolution that proposes an amendment to the Constitution or Bylaws. These
> amendments require five authors and a two-thirds vote to pass in the HOD.
> View a sample amendment to the Constitution and Bylaws.
> If members want to amend the ³SFIP² section, they may write a resolution of
> Internal Affairs. These resolutions deal with the details of AMSA¹s internal
> policies and procedures. These resolutions require one author and a majority
> vote to pass in the HOD.
> The last type of resolution is the one that most members write, a resolution
> of Principles. This type of resolution seeks to amend the ³Principles²
> section of the PPP, the section that lists how AMSA members feel about
> various issues. Members interested in changing our policy on handgun
> control, for instance, can look through our PPP section on handgun control
> and write a resolution that spells out exactly how to change this section.
> These resolutions require one author and a majority vote to pass in the HOD.
> View a sample amendment to the Principles.
> At the convention, authors of resolutions can work to get their resolutions
> passed. On Thursday afternoon, authors are encouraged to attend the open
> session of the reference committee considering their resolution. At these
> sessions, authors may speak in support of their resolutions. They may also
> speak in support of their resolutions on the House floor during the Friday
> and Saturday business sessions. It may be more effective to lobby for a
> resolution during the reference committee sessions than in the HOD since
> each resolution is allotted only about 15 minutes for discussion on the
> House floor.
> DETAILS OF RESOLUTION WRITING
> TYPE OF RESOLUTION: Classify as one of the following:
> a. Constitution or Bylaws Amendment - Requires five or more active members
> for Constitutional amendment, one member for Bylaws amendment.
> b. Resolution of Internal Affairs - Creates policy statement.
> c. Resolution of Principles - Creates organizational changes and commits
> resources to action in support of various initiatives.
> Resolutions of principles and resolutions of internal affairs may be
> compiled into the PPP; require a financial or personnel commitment from
> AMSA; require a report back to the next HOD from the BOT or another
> designated party. These resolutions can be used to create a study group, an
> ad hoc committee of the BOT or any other change that is deemed necessary to
> move an issue.
> PREAMBLE: This is a concise summary of supporting evidence documenting the
> need for, feasibility of, or interest in all activities and policy contained
> in the resolution. The preamble has no specific heading; it simply
> represents the argument for the action proposed. As such, effective
> preambles are brief, to the point and cite relevant references when
> necessary (please include all references at the end of the resolution). One
> copy of each reference cited must be sent to the AMSA national office at
> 1902 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191, Attn: Carol Clarke, or sent via
> email to [log in to unmask] Inappropriate preambles are excessively long;
> contain inflammatory language; and make bold assertions of fact without
> referenced support. The preamble should contain no specific language for
> action, though it may cite (and most likely should cite) relevant language
> from the PPP.
> OPERATIVE CLAUSE: This clause contains the specific action recommended and
> includes the exact language to be included in the PPP. There should be a
> line separating the Preamble from this clause. By tradition, ALL OPERATIVE
> CLAUSES BEGIN WITH THE WORDS, ³THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED.² The clause should
> specifically state where the language should be included in the PPP. The
> clause should not refer to the preamble, which will not go into the PPP;
> it's freestanding. Any specific deletions of the PPP may be accomplished by
> simply asking for deletion of the relevant section, unless only certain
> words are changed; then the clause should recommend a change to the new
> wording. When wording is changed or added, please include the WHOLE SECTION
> changed, not just the words changed. Cite the appropriate sections of the
> PPP to be changed, listing exact lines and pages. If you're suggesting
> additional ³BE IT RESOLVED² clauses, begin them as follows: ³BE IT FURTHER
> RESOLVED THAT...² Also, see the sample resolutions.
> A fiscal note must be included at the end of the resolution if the proposed
> amendment or resolution will require a financial commitment from AMSA. The
> fiscal note estimates the cost to the organization. It often requires
> contacting the national office to determine operating expenses.
> HOW AMSA MAKES POLICY--
> BEFORE THE CONVENTION
> What follows is a quick overview of the AMSA policy-making process. You can
> get involved in almost every step of the way. The most exciting, of course,
> is to debate the policy when it goes before the HOD at convention, but there
> are some important steps that happen before that.
> 1. Think of an idea for change
> Any member can write a resolution to create a new policy, change an
> existing policy, delete an old policy, change the Constitution or Bylaws, or
> direct the Board of Trustees to take certain actions.
> 2. Look in the PPP to find the current policy (if there is one)
> The Constitution & Bylaws and the Structure, Functions & Internal Policy
> are the documents that defines how AMSA works. The Preamble, Purposes &
> Principles (PPP) is the document that defines what our beliefs are on a wide
> range of issues. It was written entirely by members who wrote resolutions
> that passed in the HOD. Contact the trustees-at-large, your regional trustee
> or your chapter president for more information.
> 3. Write the resolution!
> A resolution has two parts. The PREAMBLE explains why the change should be
> made or why the actions need to be taken. The RESOLVED section is the new
> policy statement or what specifically you want AMSA to do. View a sample
> 4. Mail the resolution to the national office
> This is important! The postmark deadline date to submit resolutions to the
> national office is January 18, 2003. If resolutions are emailed or submitted
> online, they must also be received by January 5, 2002 in Word format and
> without any viruses. All resolutions received after this date will be
> considered late and will not be accepted for the 2003 convention. Exceptions
> to the deadline have to be approved by the BOT and must be of an ³emergent²
> 5. All resolutions submitted by the January 18 deadline will be mailed to
> the chapters at least one month prior to the convention
> 6. The Most Important Step: Chapters meet to decide how their delegates
> will vote on each resolution.
> It is extremely important that chapters meet and discuss resolutions prior
> to convention. Chapters should arrive at a consensus on each resolution and
> identify any changes they would like to see.
> AT THE CONVENTION:
> 7. Regional Meetings
> Regions meet to discuss the resolutions. One AMSA member records the
> opinions of the region in order to report to the reference committee during
> the open session.
> 8. Reference Committees‹Open Session
> The reference committees have an open session to hear testimony from all
> of the regions, Board of Trustees, chapters and individual members who want
> to give testimony.
> 9. Reference Committees‹Closed Session
> The reference committees have a closed session to assemble all of the
> testimony and to make a formal report and recommendation on each resolution.
> 10. House of Delegates
> The reference committees give their reports and resolutions are debated.
> The resolutions are amended, wording is changed and each change is voted on.
> Then, a final vote is taken and if the resolution passesŠ.
> New AMSA Policy!
> GENERAL INFORMATION
> The HOD is truly where AMSA¹s members take ownership of the Association. As
> AMSA¹s official policy-making body, the HOD is a delegation of AMSA members
> from each local medical chapter who meet once a year at the Annual
> Convention to vote on AMSA¹s policies and to elect our national officers.
> The HOD is open to all members of AMSA to speak and vote. You, the members,
> debate the issues, make the amendments and cast the votes that shape AMSA¹s
> policies. Most importantly, any member of AMSA has the right to write and
> submit resolutions to the HOD. We encourage everyone to assert their right
> to submit and debate resolutions.
> AMSA¹s policies and principles are changed only by the HOD. This body is the
> sole force that determines AMSA¹s official views on all issues. The Board of
> Trustees (BOT) spends its year implementing policies originated in the
> House. Because the House is similar to Congress, AMSA¹s policies are set
> when members submit resolutions to the House. Similar to bills in Congress,
> a resolution is a call for AMSA to endorse a certain principle, change its
> internal structure or even eliminate a past policy that is no longer the
> view of the membership. These resolutions are sent to the chapters at least
> a month in advance of the convention. The chapters are urged to call a
> chapter meeting to review the resolutions and come to some consensus on
> their feelings for each resolution.
> At the annual convention, the chapters discuss the resolutions again in
> their regional meeting, to come to a consensus with the chapters in their
> region. On Thursday of the convention, the reference committees go into
> session. The reference committees are composed of AMSA members who read and
> present recommendations about the resolutions to the full HOD (i.e. like
> congressional subcommittees). During the open reference committee meetings,
> members can give their testimony and opinions about the resolutions, alone,
> or as a representative for their region. The reference committees then
> report out on the resolutions to the HOD according to the testimony they've
> The HOD is in session on Friday and Saturday. Following a relaxed Robert¹s
> Rules of Order, the House debates the resolutions submitted by the members.
> The HOD is chaired by the senior trustee-at-large with assistance from the
> junior trustee-at-large and a second vice chair. During business sessions,
> the delegates from each chartered medical chapter listen to the reference
> committees¹ recommendations about each resolution, debate about their
> opinions and vote on the resolutions. Those resolutions that the House
> adopts are then included in AMSA¹s Preamble, Purposes and Principles (or
> PPP, AMSA¹s official policy document). These new policies can then be acted
> upon by the BOT and AMSA staff members.
Department of Women's Studies
Institute for Global Studies
University of Minnesota
425 Ford Hall
224 Church St SE
Mpls MN 55455
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